Let's get started with the history of tube type tires. When the first pneumatic tires came about, neither the tire nor the wheel were air tight. In the case of clincher tires, the tube played a vital roll in keeping the tire mounted to the rim.
As time marched on, the high pressure tires of the 1900's and teens were phased out, in favor of "balloon" tires, which required less air pressure and offered a much softer ride. During this transition, the tube was still vital, as most wheels featured wire spokes, which would allow air to escape.
By the 1940's, several individuals and companies applied for patents for a tubeless tire design. While this didn't immediately succeed, a major milestone was reached by B.F. Goodrich in 1952, when it received the patent for a tubless tire. It was so successful that tubeless tires were standard on American vehicles just a few short years later.
The new tubless tires featured a different bead design, as well as a new butyl rubber compound formula that was more airtight than previous tube type tires.